Key Moments on Day 10 of the Derek Chauvin Trial

Dr. Martin J. Tobin, a pulmonologist and critical care doctor in Chicago, said in court that the combination of Mr. Chauvin’s pressure, the handcuffs pulling Mr. Floyd’s hands behind his back and Mr. Floyd’s body being pressed against the street had caused him to die “from a low level of oxygen.” After analyzing videos of the arrest, Dr. Tobin said he determined that Mr. Chauvin had pressed his left knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck for more than 90 percent of the time that Mr. Floyd was on the ground, and that he had kept his right knee on Mr. Floyd’s back for a majority of the time as well. That pressure, combined with having his hands cuffed behind his back and pushed into the street facedown, had cut off oxygen and caused his heart to stop, Dr. Tobin said. Dr. Tobin outlined four factors that he said had caused Mr. Floyd to lose oxygen and die: The left knee of Mr. Chauvin on Mr. Floyd’s neck, Mr. Chauvin’s right knee on Mr. Floyd’s back and side, Mr. Floyd being handcuffed as he was lying in the street, and Mr. Floyd being held in the prone position. These factors had combined to only allow Mr. Floyd to take small breaths, which were not enough to bring air to the parts of the lungs that allow oxygen to get into blood. “A healthy person subjected to what Mr. Floyd was subjected to would have died,” Dr. Tobin said. One witness explained that talking does not mean being able to breath adequately. Fentanyl and methamphetamine were found in Mr. Floyd’s system, and the possibility that they caused his death is a crucial argument for Mr. Chauvin’s defense as the trial enters a phase in which medical testimony is front and center. Mr. Chauvin’s lawyer, Mr. Nelson suggested on Thursday that Mr. Floyd could have died of a fentanyl overdose if he had taken the drug in the moments before police officers pushed him to the ground. Dr. Tobin said that, unlike someone who died of a fentanyl overdose, Mr. Floyd had never gone into a coma. Mr. Nelson also sought to portray the medical care that Mr. Floyd received from paramedics as lacking; it took them nine minutes to insert a tube down Mr. Floyd’s throat after they arrived on scene, he said, but the nearest hospital was a five-minute drive away. Mr. Nelson also noted that even doctors sometimes have trouble understanding that a patient who can talk is having trouble breathing. Mr. Floyd told police officers that he could not breathe, and in response, one officer told him that it takes oxygen to talk, implying that he must be able to breathe, something medical experts have said is false or misleading. A police surgeon said Mr. Floyd did not act like someone overdosing on fentanyl. Dr. Bill Smock, the surgeon for the Louisville Metropolitan Police Department, also testified on Thursday, saying he saw no evidence of an overdose. “Mr. Floyd died from positional asphyxia, which is a fancy way of saying he died because he had no oxygen left in his body,” he said.

Key Moments on Day 10 of the Derek Chauvin Trial
Dr. Martin J. Tobin, a pulmonologist and critical care doctor in Chicago, said in court that the combination of Mr. Chauvin’s pressure, the handcuffs pulling Mr. Floyd’s hands behind his back and Mr. Floyd’s body being pressed against the street had caused him to die “from a low level of oxygen.” After analyzing videos of the arrest, Dr. Tobin said he determined that Mr. Chauvin had pressed his left knee on Mr. Floyd’s neck for more than 90 percent of the time that Mr. Floyd was on the ground, and that he had kept his right knee on Mr. Floyd’s back for a majority of the time as well. That pressure, combined with having his hands cuffed behind his back and pushed into the street facedown, had cut off oxygen and caused his heart to stop, Dr. Tobin said. Dr. Tobin outlined four factors that he said had caused Mr. Floyd to lose oxygen and die: The left knee of Mr. Chauvin on Mr. Floyd’s neck, Mr. Chauvin’s right knee on Mr. Floyd’s back and side, Mr. Floyd being handcuffed as he was lying in the street, and Mr. Floyd being held in the prone position. These factors had combined to only allow Mr. Floyd to take small breaths, which were not enough to bring air to the parts of the lungs that allow oxygen to get into blood. “A healthy person subjected to what Mr. Floyd was subjected to would have died,” Dr. Tobin said. One witness explained that talking does not mean being able to breath adequately. Fentanyl and methamphetamine were found in Mr. Floyd’s system, and the possibility that they caused his death is a crucial argument for Mr. Chauvin’s defense as the trial enters a phase in which medical testimony is front and center. Mr. Chauvin’s lawyer, Mr. Nelson suggested on Thursday that Mr. Floyd could have died of a fentanyl overdose if he had taken the drug in the moments before police officers pushed him to the ground. Dr. Tobin said that, unlike someone who died of a fentanyl overdose, Mr. Floyd had never gone into a coma. Mr. Nelson also sought to portray the medical care that Mr. Floyd received from paramedics as lacking; it took them nine minutes to insert a tube down Mr. Floyd’s throat after they arrived on scene, he said, but the nearest hospital was a five-minute drive away. Mr. Nelson also noted that even doctors sometimes have trouble understanding that a patient who can talk is having trouble breathing. Mr. Floyd told police officers that he could not breathe, and in response, one officer told him that it takes oxygen to talk, implying that he must be able to breathe, something medical experts have said is false or misleading. A police surgeon said Mr. Floyd did not act like someone overdosing on fentanyl. Dr. Bill Smock, the surgeon for the Louisville Metropolitan Police Department, also testified on Thursday, saying he saw no evidence of an overdose. “Mr. Floyd died from positional asphyxia, which is a fancy way of saying he died because he had no oxygen left in his body,” he said.